Romanticism, Classicism & Neoclassicism.

In order to gain an initial understanding of the Romanticism art movement, it was necessary to conduct some research into this area. As noted by Merriam-Webster (2017) the term ‘Romanticism’ can be defined as

‘A literary, artistic, and philosophical movement originating in the 18th century, characterized chiefly by a reaction against neoclassicism and an emphasis on the imagination and emotions.’ (Merriam-Webster, 2017)

TATE (2017) notes that the Romanticism can be applicable to both art and literature, established during the early 19th century, the movement particularly focused on human psychology, feelings and the appreciation for the interest of the natural world. (Tate, 2017)

Romanticism rejects classicism, which was another prominent art movement dating from 1780-1830, concerned with a formal, distanced approach to subject matter. Furthermore as noted by Britannica (2009) romanticism was also a rejection of the Enlightenment,

‘In Romantic art, nature—with its uncontrollable power, unpredictability, and potential for cataclysmic extremes—offered an alternative to the ordered world of Enlightenment thought.’ (MET MUSEUM, 2004)

As supported by Doctor Beth Nesic (2015) the neoclassical painting style, supported by neoclassicists such as the artist Jacques-Louis David (YEAR), the preference was in creating precise representations of forms, coherent drawing and modeling. (Nesic, 2015) As drawing was deemed to be of more intrinsic importance than that of painting, the neoclassicists strived to ensure in the creation of their work that visibility of brush strokes are non-existent and furthermore it was necessary to ensure that the surface of the work visibly appears completely smooth. The themes and subject matters of work produced during the neoclassical period would reflect the seriousness and rationality of the era, which directly links to historical events which occured simultaneously, such an example is the French Revolution (1789).

Image result for jacques-louis david paintings
DAVID, J. (1799) The Intervention of the Sabine Women.

 

Neoclassicism strived to revive the artistic and literary ideals of classical Greece and Rome; both romanticism and neoclassicism have interchangable stylistic qualities which often overlapped.

Key visual qualities of classicism/neoclassicism as noted by Britannica (2009):

  1. Symmetry.
  2. Lines over colour.
  3. Straight lines over curves.
  4. Frontality and closed compositions over diagonal compositions.
  5. General over particular.A good example to support this statement is a comparison of Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres’ (1780-1867) painting titled Apotheosis of Homer (1825) and Eugene Delacroix’s (1798-1863) painting titled Death of Sardanapalus (1827). Both paintings support the artist’s originality, which is synonomous with romanticism. Furthermore, Ingres’ painting appears to be structually ordered which would assert the idea that this piece directly links to classicism, whereas Delacroix’s painting subject matter portrays disorder, linking directly to the neoclassical style and influences of Jacques-Louis David (1748-1825).

http://www.umich.edu/~homeros/Artgallerypages/ingres52.jpg
INGRES, J. (1827) Apotheosis of Homer. [Oil on Canvas].
https://i0.wp.com/www.artble.com/imgs/e/7/a/934950/the_death_of_sardanapalus.jpg
DELACROIX, E. (1827) Death of Sardanapalus. [Oil on Canvas].
What was the purpose of Romanticism? What were the aims?

Romanticism developed from the French Revolution and was a rejection of social and political norms, further influenced by the theory of evolution and uniformitarianism. Furthermore the romanticism movement brought to light the importance of expression and emotion, and the idea that these human attributes are stronger than that of knowledge or intellect.

As noted by New York Encyclopedia (2015) the purpose of romanticism was to support the validation of the idea whereby an individual imagination’ can act as a credible, critical dominance which consequently enabled both freedom and escapism from the confinements and restrictions of classical art. (New York Encyclopedia, 2015)

Furthermore within romanticism the general consensus of this artistic movement was:

  • Deepened, developed appreciation of the beauties of nature.
  • General happiness and emotion over reason and senses, rather than a focus on intelligence.
  • Self-awareness and a better consideration towards human personalities and moods.
  • A fixation with the idea of a genius or hero in which the individual can focus both their attention on.
  • Emphasis upon imagination as an escapism and an experience aiding spiritual truth.
  • Developing interest in: folk culture, national and ethnic culture origins and the medieval period.
  • A preference for: the exotic, the remote, the mysterious, the weird, the occult, the monstrous, the diseased and the satanic.

Self-reflection

Upon reflection of initial souricing and interpretating this information, I am beginning to understand the history of art better; whilst developing an understanding of what genres the work I create might best suit, whilst also considering developing inspiration further, and potential direction/genres for the work I intend to make.

Learning the basics of romanticism has enlightened my thinking toward the purpose of the photographs.

– What I want to gain.
– What I want others to gain.

In terms of personal development, there is a strong connection between and towards the idea of the ideal and escapism. Therefore on this journey of photographic self-development, I aim to discover more about myself as well as a more informed decision and opinion on romanticism.

I want others to gain an experience of my interpretation on the world, whilst also providing the viewer with an escapism of their own…

REFERENCE LIST:

ARTBLE (2017) Eugene Delacroix’s ‘Death of Sardanapalus’ [Online Image] Available from: http://www.artble.com/artists/eugene_delacroix/paintings/the_death_of_sardanapalus [Last Accessed: January 2017].

BRITANNICA. (2009) Classicism and Neoclassicism. [Online] Available from: https://www.britannica.com/art/Neoclassicism [Last Accessed: January 2017].

BRITANNICA. (2009) Romanticism. [Online] Available from: https://www.britannica.com/art/Romanticism [Last Accessed: January 2017].

MERRIAM-WEBSTER. (2017) Romanticism. [Online] Available from: https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/romanticism [Last Accessed: January 2017].

MET MUSEUM. (2004) Romanticism. [Online] Available from: http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/roma/hd_roma.htm [Last Accessed: January 2017].

NESIC, B. (2015) Neoclassicism, an introduction. [Online] Available from: https://www.khanacademy.org/humanities/monarchy-enlightenment/neo-classicism/a/neoclassicism-an-introduction [Last Accessed: January 2017].

NEW YORK ENCYCLOPEDIA (2015). Romanticism. [Online] Available from: http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Romanticism [Last Accessed: January 2017].

TATE. (2017) Romanticism. [Online] Available from: http://www.tate.org.uk/learn/online-resources/glossary/r/romanticism [Last Accessed: January 2017].

UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN (2017) Jean Ingres’ ‘Apotheosis of Homer’. [Online Image] Available from: http://www.umich.edu/~homeros/Artgallerypages/apotheosisingres.htm [Last Accessed: January 2017].

25TH CENUTURY (2017) Jacques-Louis David NeoClassical Paintings. [Online Image] Available from: http://www.25thcenturyyy.com/jacques-louis-david-neoclassical-paintings/ [Last Accessed: January 2017].

BIBLIOGRAPHY

ARTBLE (2017) Eugene Delacroix’s ‘Death of Sardanapalus’ [Online Image] Available from: http://www.artble.com/artists/eugene_delacroix/paintings/the_death_of_sardanapalus [Last Accessed: January 2017].

BRITANNICA. (2009) Classicism and Neoclassicism. [Online] Available from: https://www.britannica.com/art/Neoclassicism [Last Accessed: January 2017].

BRITANNICA. (2009) Romanticism. [Online] Available from: https://www.britannica.com/art/Romanticism [Last Accessed: January 2017].

LOUVRE. (2017) The Intervention of The Sabine Women. [Online] Available from: http://www.louvre.fr/en/oeuvre-notices/intervention-sabine-women [Last Accessed: January 2017].

MERRIAM-WEBSTER. (2017) Romanticism. [Online] Available from: https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/romanticism [Last Accessed: January 2017].

MET MUSEUM. (2004) Romanticism. [Online] Available from: http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/roma/hd_roma.htm [Last Accessed: January 2017].

MET MUSEUM. (2004) The Legacy of Jacques Louis David  (1748- 1825). [Online] Available from: http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/jldv/hd_jldv.htm [Last Accessed: January 2017].

NESIC, B. (2015) Neoclassicism, an introduction. [Online] Available from: https://www.khanacademy.org/humanities/monarchy-enlightenment/neo-classicism/a/neoclassicism-an-introduction [Last Accessed: January 2017].

NEW YORK ENCYCLOPEDIA (2015). Romanticism. [Online] Available from: http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Romanticism [Last Accessed: January 2017].

REFERENCE (2017) What are characteristics of classicism? [Online] Available from: https://www.reference.com/art-literature/characteristics-classicism-53b3f22f8b40ed59 [Last Accessed: January 2017]

TATE. (2017) Romanticism. [Online] Available from: http://www.tate.org.uk/learn/online-resources/glossary/r/romanticism [Last Accessed: January 2017].

UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN (2017) Jean Ingres’ ‘Apotheosis of Homer’. [Online Image] Available from: http://www.umich.edu/~homeros/Artgallerypages/apotheosisingres.htm [Last Accessed: January 2017].

WIKIPEDIA. (2016) Classicism. [Online] Available from: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Classicism [Last Accessed: January 2017].

YAHOO. (2011) What was the purpose of Romanticism? And why? [Online] Available from: https://answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20110119054219AA7CYBY [Last Accessed: January 2017].

25TH CENUTURY (2017) Jacques-Louis David NeoClassical Paintings. [Online Image] Available from: http://www.25thcenturyyy.com/jacques-louis-david-neoclassical-paintings/ [Last Accessed: January 2017].

Stephanie Murton, Photographic Practices, Supporting Work — The Proposal.

This is the first post for the level five assignment ‘Photographic Practices’ the content of the blog entry is to highlight proposed ideas and intentions of my photographic project. These ideas have been both generated and agreed upon with lecturers. In addition, the ideas have further been applied into a 1000 worded and illustrated proposal document – which can be viewed below.

proposal-document-stephanie-murton-phot50105-m019276f